Purpose: To determine the natural evolution and surgical indications of myopic foveoschisis (MF), which are still poorly documented, and the factors that predict poor prognosis.
Design: Retrospective observational case series.
Methods: Twenty-nine operated and nonoperated cases of MF (29 eyes of 23 patients) were studied. All eyes underwent repeated examinations, including optical coherence tomographic (OCT) recordings, during a mean follow-up of 31.2 months. Special attention was paid to the evolution of visual acuity (VA) and to the thickness of foveoschisis.
Results: Mean refraction was -14.4 diopters, and mean axial length was 29.1 mm. OCT scans revealed that the foveoschisis was associated with macular anomalies: a premacular structure in 13 (44.8%) of 29 eyes, a foveal detachment in 10 (34.5%) of 29 eyes, and a lamellar macular hole in six (20.7%) of 29 eyes. Isolated foveoschisis was found in four eyes (13.8%). During follow-up, foveoschisis and VA worsened in 20 eyes and remained stable in nine. Ten of the 20 eyes that worsened had a premacular structure. A macular hole occurred in nine eyes, six of which had previously exhibited foveal detachment. Eleven eyes with foveoschisis underwent surgery, which improved VA significantly (P = .04, Wilcoxon test), but three eyes developed a macular hole.
Conclusions: MF may remain stable for many years without affecting VA. However, when it is combined with the presence of a premacular structure, the risk of a decrease in VA increases. When it is combined with foveal detachment, a macular hole seems to develop frequently, whether or not surgery is performed.