Chl1 and Ctf4 are required for damage-induced recombinations

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Mar 2;354(1):222-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.12.185. Epub 2007 Jan 2.


Deletion mutants of CHL1 or CTF4, which are required for sister chromatid cohesion, showed higher sensitivity to the DNA damaging agents methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), hydroxyurea (HU), phleomycin, and camptothecin, similar to the phenotype of mutants of RAD52, which is essential for recombination repair. The levels of Chl1 and Ctf4 associated with chromatin increased considerably after exposure of the cells to MMS and phleomycin. Although the activation of DNA damage checkpoint did not affected in chl1 and ctf4 mutants, the repair of damaged chromosome was inefficient, suggesting that Chl1 and Ctf4 act in DNA repair. In addition, MMS-induced sister chromatid recombination in haploid cells, and, more importantly, MMS-induced recombination between homologous chromosomes in diploid cells were impaired in these mutants. Our results suggest that Chl1 and Ctf4 are directly involved in homologous recombination repair rather than acting indirectly via the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / genetics*
  • DNA Damage / genetics*
  • DNA Repair / genetics*
  • DNA, Fungal / genetics*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • Genomic Instability / genetics*
  • Recombination, Genetic / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / genetics*
  • Sister Chromatid Exchange / genetics


  • CHL1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • CTF4 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • DNA, Fungal
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins