Effective treatments for testicular cancer have been available since the 1970s, yet EUROCARE uncovered marked inter-country survival differences for this disease. To investigate these differences, we reviewed clinical records of 1350 testicular cancer cases diagnosed during 1987-1992 from 13 population-based cancer registries in nine European countries. Patients were followed up for life status and relapse. Ten-year observed survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox multivariable analyses were performed separately for seminomas and non-seminomas. Overall, 66% of seminomas and 36% of non-seminomas were limited to the testis. Ten-year survival was 63% (Estonia) to 94% (Switzerland, Slovenia) for seminoma; 47% (Estonia) to 90% (Yorkshire, UK, The Netherlands) for non-seminoma. Multivariable analysis adjusted for country, age and stage showed that hazard ratios (HRs) of death differed little between western European registries, and were mainly attributable to differing stage at diagnosis. Significantly higher than reference HRs in Estonia and Poland suggest inadequacy or unavailability of treatments.