The completion of the human genome has shifted the attention from deciphering the sequence to the identification and characterisation of the functional components, including genes. Improved gene prediction algorithms, together with the existing transcript and protein information, have enabled the identification of most exons in a genome. Availability of the 'parts list' has fostered the development of experimental approaches to systematically interrogate gene function on the genome, transcriptome and proteome level. Studying gene function at the protein level is vital to the understanding of how cells perform their functions as variations in protein isoforms and protein quantity which may underlie a change in phenotype can often not be deduced from sequence or transcript level genomics experiments alone. Recent advancements in proteomics have afforded technologies capable of measuring protein expression, post-translational modifications of these proteins, their subcellular localisation and assembly into complexes and pathways. Although an enormous amount of data already exists on the function of many human proteins, much of it is scattered over multiple resources. Public domain databases are therefore required to manage and collate this information and present it to the user community in both a human and machine readable manner. Of special importance here is the integration of heterogeneous data to facilitate the creation of resources that go beyond a mere parts list.