Clusterin over-expression modulates proapoptotic and antiproliferative effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 in prostate cancer cells in vitro

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Mar;103(3-5):721-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2006.12.068. Epub 2007 Jan 16.


Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the majority of western countries. Due to their antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity, vitamin D analogues have been introduced recently as an experimental therapy for prostate cancer. Clusterin (CLU) is a glycoprotein that has two known isoforms generated in human cells. A nuclear form of CLU protein (nCLU) is pro-apoptotic, and a secretory form (sCLU) is pro-survival. In this study, we analyzed whether proapoptotic and antiproliferative effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on LNCaP prostate cancer cells are modulated by expression of sCLU. Using colony forming assay, we studied the effect of treatment with different doses of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (10(-6), 10(-7), 10(-10)M) on proliferation of LNCaP cells that were stable transfected and over-express sCLU (LNT-1) as compared to empty vector-transfected cells (LN/C). We also measured apoptosis using TUNEL assay. sCLU over-expression protected against both antiproliferative (30%) and proapoptotic (15%) effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), although this effect was statistically not significant. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that expression of sCLU modulates growth regulatory effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in prostate cancer indicating that CLU interferes with vitamin D signalling pathways.

MeSH terms

  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Calcitriol / pharmacology*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Clusterin / genetics
  • Clusterin / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity


  • Clusterin
  • Calcitriol