Squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas account for the majority of cases of esophageal cancer. Esophageal cancer often is diagnosed in advanced stages as clinical symptoms are lacking in early stages. The major aims of imaging in esophageal cancer are to determine local tumor extension (T and N staging), to rule out systemic disease (M staging), and to assess response to neoadjuvant therapy (response evaluation). CT is still inferior to endoscopic ultrasound in differentiating T stages and detecting regional lymph node metastases. However, it plays a central role in determining infiltration into adjacent organs (T4 stage) and in ruling out distant metastases. Multislice-CT (MSCT) offers the possibility of reconstructions, which often help to assess the relationship between tumor and anatomic landmarks like the tracheobronchial tree or the diaphragm. First results of CT volumetry for response evaluation are promising; however, PET and PET/CT with the glucose analogue FDG are the standard methods to evaluate response to neoadjuvant therapy.