High-efficiency FLP and PhiC31 site-specific recombination in mammalian cells

PLoS One. 2007 Jan 17;2(1):e162. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000162.


DNA site-specific recombinases (SSRs) such as Cre, FLPe, and phiC31, are powerful tools for analyzing gene function in vertebrates. While the availability of multiple high-efficiency SSRs would facilitate a wide array of genomic engineering possibilities, efficient recombination in mammalian cells has only been observed with Cre recombinase. Here we report the de novo synthesis of mouse codon-optimized FLP (FLPo) and PhiC31 (PhiC31o) SSRs, which result in recombination efficiencies similar to Cre.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • DNA Nucleotidyltransferases / genetics
  • DNA Nucleotidyltransferases / metabolism*
  • Embryo, Mammalian / anatomy & histology
  • Embryo, Mammalian / physiology
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Integrases / genetics
  • Integrases / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Recombination, Genetic*


  • Cre recombinase
  • DNA Nucleotidyltransferases
  • FLP recombinase
  • Integrases
  • Site-specific recombinase