The simultaneous type, serial token model of temporal attention and working memory

Psychol Rev. 2007 Jan;114(1):38-70. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.114.1.38.


A detailed description of the simultaneous type, serial token (ST2) model is presented. ST2 is a model of temporal attention and working memory that encapsulates 5 principles: (a) M. M. Chun and M. C. Potter's (1995) 2-stage model, (b) a Stage 1 salience filter, (c) N. G. Kanwisher's (1987, 1991) types-tokens distinction, (d) a transient attentional enhancement, and (e) a mechanism for associating types with tokens called the binding pool. The authors instantiate this theoretical position in a connectionist implementation, called neural-ST2, which they illustrate by modeling temporal attention results focused on the attentional blink (AB). They demonstrate that the ST2 model explains a spectrum of AB findings. Furthermore, they highlight a number of new temporal attention predictions arising from the ST2 theory, which are tested in a series of behavioral experiments. Finally, the authors review major AB models and theories and compare them with ST2.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Attention*
  • Blinking
  • Humans
  • Memory*
  • Models, Psychological*
  • Nerve Net / physiology*
  • Time Factors