This position paper documents the merit of including for basic and clinical investigations the mapping of circadian and other rhythms and yet broader chronomes, time structures in and around us. Chronobiometry used herein relies on inferential statistical methods and on materials documented earlier. The circadian amplitude of melatonin is shown to relate both to cancer risk and to the presence of overt cancer, when no differences are found in the 24-hour average of melatonin. Optimization of treatment by timing, thoroughly documented along the circadian scale earlier, could be broadened to include optimization along the scale of the week, and eventually beyond. In both cases, reliance on marker rhythmometry is advocated. More generally, the limits of knowledge are expanded by considering already mapped spectral components and their characteristics that can be influenced by the dynamics of heliogeomagnetic signals heretofore unassessed.