Neurons are highly polarized cells composed of two structurally and functionally distinct parts, the axon and the dendrite. The establishment of this asymmetric structure is a tightly regulated process. In fact, alterations in the proteins involved in the configuration of the microtubule lattice are frequent in neuro-oncologic diseases. One of these cytoplasmic mediators is the protein known as collapsin response mediator protein-2, which interacts with and promotes tubulin polymerization. In this study, we investigated collapsin response mediator protein-2 transcriptional regulation during all-trans-retinoic acid-induced differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. All-trans-retinoic acid is considered to be a potential preventive and therapeutic agent, and has been extensively used to differentiate neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Therefore, we first demonstrated that collapsin response mediator protein-2 mRNA levels are downregulated during the differentiation process. After completion of deletion construct analysis and mutagenesis and mobility shift assays, we concluded that collapsin response mediator protein-2 basal promoter activity is regulated by the transcription factors AP-2 and Pax-3, whereas E2F, Sp1 and NeuroD1 seem not to participate in its regulation. Furthermore, we finally established that reduced expression of collapsin response mediator protein-2 after all-trans-retinoic acid exposure is associated with impaired Pax-3 and AP-2 binding to their consensus sequences in the collapsin response mediator protein-2 promoter. Decreased attachment of AP-2 is a consequence of its accumulation in the cytoplasm. On the other hand, Pax-3 shows lower binding due to all-trans-retinoic acid-mediated transcriptional repression. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms behind the action of all-trans-retinoic acid on neuroblastoma cells may well offer new perspectives for its clinical application.