We have studied the epidemiology of pertussis in two countries, Argentina and France, which have similar histories of long-term mass vaccination with a whole-cell vaccine. Both countries display a comparable epidemiology, with an increase of the incidence of the disease in non-vaccinated newborns. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis and genotyping to compare Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates recovered in Argentina and France in 2001-2004. The majority of the isolates harbors prn2 allele and belongs to PFGE IVbeta group. Isolates were found to be very similar genetically suggesting a common evolution of the disease in these two countries using the same vaccine.