Association of cooking oil fumes exposure with lung cancer: involvement of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins in cell survival and proliferation in vitro

Mutat Res. 2007 Apr 2;628(2):107-16. doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2006.12.005. Epub 2006 Dec 22.


Cooking oil fumes (COF) have been shown to be associated with lung cancer incidence in Chinese women. Our recent report indicates that inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (IAP2) induced by COF may contribute to the survival and proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells. In this study, to further verify whether other antiapoptosis proteins including IAP1, X-linked IAP (XIAP), and survivin, were linked with lung cancer cell survival and proliferation, these IAPs expressions in A549 cells after treatment with COF and its two major components, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2,4-decadienal (2,4-DDE) were evaluated by Western blotting. Our data showed that IAP2 was significantly induced by COF, BaP, and 2,4-DDE, but XIAP was decreased by COF and 2,4-DDE, but not by BaP. Even though different effects of COF and 2,4-DDE on IAP2 and XIAP protein expressions were observed, the caspase-3 expression was diminished by COF and 2,4-DDE. In addition, induction of IAP2 and phosphorylated Akt proteins by COF and 2,4-DDE were simultaneously abolished by LY294002. Flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis showed that the proportion of A549 cells at the S-phase was increased significantly after treatment with COF or 2,4-DDE. The cell proliferation induced by COF is associated with the attenuation of p21(Cip/Waf1) expression. Therefore, increases of IAP1, IAP2, survivin, and cyclin D1 expressions and decreases of XIAP, caspase-3, and p21 expressions might partly contribute to the survival and proliferation of lung cancer cells after exposure to 2,4-DDE and COF. In conclusion, the lung cancer cell growth promoted by COF might support previous epidemiological reports indicating that exposure of COF was associated with lung cancer development among Chinese women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollution, Indoor / adverse effects
  • Aldehydes / toxicity
  • Benzo(a)pyrene / toxicity
  • Carcinogens / toxicity
  • Cell Proliferation*
  • Cell Survival*
  • Cooking
  • Dietary Fats, Unsaturated / adverse effects*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins / genetics
  • Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins / physiology*
  • Lung Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Lung Neoplasms / genetics
  • Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • Smoke / adverse effects*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Aldehydes
  • Carcinogens
  • Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
  • Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins
  • Smoke
  • 2,4-decadienal
  • Benzo(a)pyrene