Metabolic conversion of endogenous estrogens, estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1), to the catechol estrogens 4-hydroxyE1(E2) [4-OHE1(E2)] has been implicated in the initiation of cancer in rodents and humans. Evidence collected in our laboratories has shown that 4-OHE1(E2) are enzymatically oxidized to E1(E2)-3,4-quinones [E1(E2)-3,4-Q], which have the potential to damage DNA by forming predominantly depurinating adducts, 4-OHE1(E2)-1-N3Ade and 4-OHE1(E2)-1-N7Gua, leading to the accumulation of mutations and probably cell transformation. The human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10F has been transformed by treatment with E2 or 4-OHE2. We have used MCF-10F cells to study the presence of adducts and conjugates after treatment with 4-OHE2. To mimic the intermittent exposure of breast cells to endogenous estrogens, MCF-10F cells were treated with 1 microM 4-OHE2 for a 24-h period at 72, 120, 192 and 240 h postplating. Culture media were collected at each point, extracted by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by HPLC connected with a multichannel electrochemical detector and/or ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Media from successive treatments with 4-OHE2 showed the formation of methoxy and cysteine conjugates, and the depurinating adducts 4-OHE1(E2)-1-N3Ade. The amount of 4-OHE1(E2)-1-N3Ade adducts was higher after the third treatment; smaller amounts of the 4-OHE1(E2)-1-N7Gua adducts were detected after the second and third treatments. These results demonstrate that MCF-10F cells oxidize 4-OHE2 to E1(E2)-3,4-Q, which react with DNA to form the depurinating N3Ade and N7Gua adducts. This DNA damage can play an important role in the 4-OHE2-induced mutations and transformation of MCF-10F cells to malignant cells.
(c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.