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Review
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Pharmacological and Lifestyle Interventions to Prevent or Delay Type 2 Diabetes in People With Impaired Glucose Tolerance: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Review

Pharmacological and Lifestyle Interventions to Prevent or Delay Type 2 Diabetes in People With Impaired Glucose Tolerance: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Clare L Gillies et al. BMJ.

Abstract

Objective: To quantify the effectiveness of pharmacological and lifestyle interventions to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance.

Data sources: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library searched up to July 2006. Expert opinions sought and reference lists of identified studies and any relevant published reviews checked.

Study selection: Randomised controlled trials that evaluated interventions to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.

Results: 21 trials met the inclusion criteria, of which 17, with 8084 participants with impaired glucose tolerance, reported results in enough detail for inclusion in the meta-analyses. From the meta-analyses the pooled hazard ratios were 0.51 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.60) for lifestyle interventions v standard advice, 0.70 (0.62 to 0.79) for oral diabetes drugs v control, 0.44 (0.28 to 0.69) for orlistat v control, and 0.32 (0.03 to 3.07) for the herbal remedy jiangtang bushen recipe v standard diabetes advice. These correspond to numbers needed to treat for benefit (NNTB) and harm (NNTH) of 6.4 for lifestyle (95% credible interval, NNTB 5.0 to NNTB 8.4), 10.8 for oral diabetes drugs (NNTB 8.1 to NNTB 15.0), 5.4 for orlistat (NNTB 4.1 to NNTB 7.6), and 4.0 for jiangtang bushen (NNTH 16.9 to NNTB 24.8).

Conclusions: Lifestyle and pharmacological interventions reduce the rate of progression to type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance. Lifestyle interventions seem to be at least as effective as drug treatment.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: KK has received sponsorship for attending conferences and small honorariums from pharmaceutical companies that manufacture drugs for hypoglycaemia and anti-obesity drugs.

Figures

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Fig 1 Flow chart of literature search and meta-analysis
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Fig 2 Meta-analysis of effect of lifestyle interventions on risk of developing type 2 diabetes
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Fig 3 Meta-analyses of effect of pharmacological and herbal interventions on risk of developing type 2 diabetes

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