Skeletal muscle has the ability to achieve rapid repair in response to injury or disease. Many individuals with Marfan syndrome (MFS), caused by a deficiency of extracellular fibrillin-1, exhibit myopathy and often are unable to increase muscle mass despite physical exercise. Evidence suggests that selected manifestations of MFS reflect excessive signaling by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta (refs. 2,3). TGF-beta is a known inhibitor of terminal differentiation of cultured myoblasts; however, the functional contribution of TGF-beta signaling to disease pathogenesis in various inherited myopathic states in vivo remains unknown. Here we show that increased TGF-beta activity leads to failed muscle regeneration in fibrillin-1-deficient mice. Systemic antagonism of TGF-beta through administration of TGF-beta-neutralizing antibody or the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan normalizes muscle architecture, repair and function in vivo. Moreover, we show TGF-beta-induced failure of muscle regeneration and a similar therapeutic response in a dystrophin-deficient mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.