Solid-phase microextraction of benzimidazole fungicides in environmental liquid samples and HPLC-fluorescence determination

Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007 Mar;387(6):1957-63. doi: 10.1007/s00216-006-1083-0. Epub 2007 Jan 20.


Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection was optimized for extraction and determination of four benzimidazole fungicides (benomyl, carbendazim, thiabendazole, and fuberidazole) in water. We studied extraction and desorption conditions, for example fiber type, extraction time, ionic strength, extraction temperature, and desorption time to achieve the maximum efficiency in the extraction. Results indicate that SPME using a Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane 75 microm (CAR-PDMS) fiber is suitable for extraction of these types of compound. Final analysis of benzimidazole fungicides was performed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Recoveries ranged from 80.6 to 119.6 with RSDs below 9% and limits of detection between 0.03 and 1.30 ng mL-1 for the different analytes. The optimized procedure was applied successfully to the determination of benzimidazole fungicides mixtures in environmental water samples (sea, sewage, and ground water).

MeSH terms

  • Adsorption
  • Antifungal Agents / analysis
  • Antifungal Agents / chemistry*
  • Benzimidazoles / analysis
  • Benzimidazoles / chemistry*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods*
  • Molecular Structure
  • Solid Phase Microextraction / methods*
  • Spectrometry, Fluorescence / methods*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / chemistry*


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Benzimidazoles
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • benzimidazole