Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) was investigated for its clinical efficacy in the treatment of various types of neutropenia (3 cases with idiopathic neutropenia of suspected drug induction, 5 cases with idiopathic neutropenia of other origin, and 2 cases with cyclic neutropenia). Treatment with glycosylated rhG-CSF produced in the Chinese Hamster Ovary cells at dose levels of 2-5 micrograms/kg/day caused rapid increases of neutrophil counts associated with an improvement of the infection. In cyclic neutropenia patients, marked reduction in the duration of the neutropenic period was observed with rhG-CSF administration started before the period. Intercurrent stomatitis, which occurred in 1 patient, was markedly milder as compared to a previous episode which occurred during an untreated neutropenic period. The treatment of rhG-CSF was well tolerated and no adverse events were observed, nor was there any detectable anti-rhG-CSF antibody in any patients studied; hence the clinical use of rhG-CSF is considered to be safe. These results suggest beneficial effects of rhG-CSF on the recovery of neutrophil counts in cyclic and other types of idiopathic neutropenias, as well as for the treatment of neutropenia-associated infection.