Yellow fever (YF), can be prevented by an attenuated vaccine (YEL). We reviewed neurologic adverse events (AE) following YEL that were reported to the national Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS). VAERS is a passive reporting system with inherent limitations for causality assessment. Based on defined criteria, five cases of encephalitis were classified as 'definitely' and one of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) as 'probably' caused by YEL. Six cases of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS), one of encephalitis, and two of ADEM, were classified as 'suspect' vaccine-associated disease. Laboratory and epidemiological evidence suggests that YEL caused encephalitis. Additional studies will be required to confirm whether YEL can rarely result in GBS and/or ADEM.