Female athlete triad update

Clin Sports Med. 2007 Jan;26(1):69-89. doi: 10.1016/j.csm.2006.11.002.


The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

Publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Female Athlete Triad Syndrome* / epidemiology
  • Female Athlete Triad Syndrome* / etiology
  • Female Athlete Triad Syndrome* / history
  • Female Athlete Triad Syndrome* / physiopathology
  • History, 20th Century
  • Humans
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • Prevalence