Impact of rapid diagnosis on management of adults hospitalized with influenza

Arch Intern Med. 2007 Feb 26;167(4):354-60. doi: 10.1001/archinte.167.4.ioi60207. Epub 2007 Jan 22.


Background: Rapid influenza testing decreases antibiotic and ancillary test use in febrile children, yet its effect on the care of hospitalized adults is unexplored. We compared the clinical management of patients with influenza whose rapid antigen test result was positive (Ag+) with the management of those whose rapid antigen test result was negative or the test was not performed (Ag0).

Methods: Medical record review was performed on patients with influenza hospitalized during 4 winters (1999-2003). Hospital policy mandated influenza testing (antigen or culture) for all patients with acute cardiopulmonary diseases admitted from November 15 through April 15. A subset of patients participated in an epidemiological study and had reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or serologic testing performed. Clinical data from Ag+ and Ag0 patients were compared.

Results: Of 166 patients with available records, 86 were Ag+ and 80 were Ag0. Antibiotic use (74 [86%] of 86 patients vs 79 [99%] of 80 patients; P = .002) was less and antibiotic discontinuance (12 [14%] of 86 patients vs 2 [2%] of 80 patients; P=.01) was greater in Ag+ compared with Ag0 patients. No significant differences in antibiotic days, length of hospital stay, or antibiotic complications were noted. Antiviral use (63 [73%] of 86 patients vs 6 [8%] of 80 patients; P<.001) was greater in Ag+ than Ag0 patients. Antigen status was independently associated with withholding or discontinuing antibiotics in multivariate analysis. Of 44 Ag+ patients deemed low risk for bacterial infection, 27 continued to receive antibiotics despite positive influenza test results. These patients more commonly had pulmonary disease and had significantly more abnormal lung examination results (P = .005) compared with those in whom antibiotics were withheld or discontinued.

Conclusions: Rapid influenza testing leads to reductions in antibiotic use in hospitalized adults. Better tools to rule out concomitant bacterial infection are needed to optimize the impact of viral testing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antigens, Viral / analysis*
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • DNA, Viral / analysis*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Influenza A virus / genetics
  • Influenza A virus / immunology
  • Influenza A virus / isolation & purification*
  • Influenza B virus / genetics
  • Influenza B virus / immunology
  • Influenza B virus / isolation & purification*
  • Influenza Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • Influenza, Human / diagnosis*
  • Influenza, Human / drug therapy
  • Influenza, Human / virology
  • Inpatients
  • Male
  • Nasal Mucosa / virology
  • Pharynx / virology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Antigens, Viral
  • Antiviral Agents
  • DNA, Viral
  • Influenza Vaccines