Metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial function: molecular replacement and antioxidant supplements to prevent membrane peroxidation and restore mitochondrial function

J Cell Biochem. 2007 Apr 15;100(6):1352-69. doi: 10.1002/jcb.21247.


Metabolic syndrome consists of a cluster of metabolic conditions, such as hypertriglyceridemia, hyper-low-density lipoproteins, hypo-high-density lipoproteins, insulin resistance, abnormal glucose tolerance and hypertension, that-in combination with genetic susceptibility and abdominal obesity-are risk factors for type 2 diabetes, vascular inflammation, atherosclerosis, and renal, liver and heart disease. One of the defects in metabolic syndrome and its associated diseases is excess cellular oxidative stress (mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, ROS/RNS) and oxidative damage to mitochondrial components, resulting in reduced efficiency of the electron transport chain. Recent evidence indicates that reduced mitochondrial function caused by ROS/RNS membrane oxidation is related to fatigue, a common complaint of MS patients. Lipid replacement therapy (LRT) administered as a nutritional supplement with antioxidants can prevent excess oxidative membrane damage, restore mitochondrial and other cellular membrane functions and reduce fatigue. Recent clinical trials have shown the benefit of LRT plus antioxidants in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Thus LRT plus antioxidant supplements should be considered for metabolic syndrome patients who suffer to various degrees from fatigue.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use
  • Cell Membrane / drug effects*
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Syndrome / metabolism
  • Metabolic Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / prevention & control*
  • Mitochondria / drug effects*
  • Mitochondria / physiology
  • Models, Biological
  • Oxidation-Reduction / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects


  • Antioxidants