Incorporating in vitro information on drug metabolism into clinical trial simulations to assess the effect of CYP2D6 polymorphism on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: dextromethorphan as a model application

J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;47(2):175-86. doi: 10.1177/0091270006294279.


In vitro-in vivo extrapolation of clearance, embedded in a clinical trial simulation, was used to investigate differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dextromethorphan between CYP2D6 poor and extensive metabolizer phenotypes. Information on the genetic variation of CYP2D6, as well as the in vitro metabolism and pharmacodynamics of dextromethorphan and its active metabolite dextrorphan, was integrated to assess the power of studies to detect differences between phenotypes. Whereas 6 subjects of each phenotype were adequate to achieve 80% power in showing pharmacokinetic differences, the power required to detect a difference in antitussive response was less than 80% with 500 subjects in each study arm. Combining in vitro-in vivo extrapolation with a clinical trial simulation is useful in assessing different elements of study design and could be used a priori to avoid inconclusive pharmacogenetic studies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antitussive Agents / blood
  • Antitussive Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Antitussive Agents / pharmacology
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Computer Simulation
  • Cough / drug therapy*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 / genetics*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 / metabolism
  • Dextromethorphan / blood
  • Dextromethorphan / pharmacokinetics*
  • Dextromethorphan / pharmacology*
  • Dextrorphan / blood
  • Models, Biological*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic


  • Antitussive Agents
  • Dextrorphan
  • Dextromethorphan
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6