Recently, it has been found that long-chain fatty acids activate the G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs), GPR120 and GPR40. However, there have been no reports to date on the possible physiological roles of these GPRs in adipose tissue development and adipocyte differentiation. GPR120 mRNA was highly expressed in the four different adipose tissues, and the amount of mRNA was elevated in adipose tissues of mice fed a high fat diet. However, GPR40 mRNA was not detected in any of the adipose tissues. The expression of GPR120 mRNA was higher in adipocytes compared to stromal-vascular (S-V) cells. The level of GPR120 mRNA increased during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Similar results were observed in human adipose tissue, human preadipocytes, and cultured adipocytes. Moreover, use of a small interference RNA (siRNA) to down-regulate GPR120 expression resulted in inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. Our results suggest that GPR120 regulates adipogenic processes such as adipocyte development and differentiation.