Recent evidence supports a role for vitamin K-dependent coagulation zymogens in adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5, subgroup C) infection of hepatocytes. Here, we assessed the effect of virus-zymogen interaction on cellular transduction using a panel of fiber (f)-pseudotyped viruses derived from subgroup D (f47, f33, f24, f45, f17, f30). Each virus directly bound factor X (FX) as determined by surface plasmon resonance, resulting in enhanced cell surface binding. Infection of HepG2 cells was promoted by FX but not by FVII or FIX, while transduction of CHO cells was blocked in heparan sulfate proteoglycan-deficient cells. This suggests a broad role for FX in adenovirus infectivity.