Increasing immune responses with immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to immune-receptor molecules is a new and exciting strategy in cancer therapy. This expanding class of agents functions on crucial receptors, either antagonizing those that suppress immune responses or activating others that amplify immune responses. Complications such as autoimmunity and systemic inflammation are problematic side effects associated with these agents. However, promising synergy has been observed in preclinical models using combinations of immunostimulatory antibodies and other immunotherapy strategies or conventional cancer therapies. Importantly, mAbs of this type have now entered clinical trials with encouraging initial results.