Objective: Few observational studies have investigated dietary fiber intake and dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) simultaneously in relation to obesity, particularly in non-Western populations. We examined the associations between dietary fiber intake and dietary GI and GL, and body mass index (BMI) in young Japanese women.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Subjects: A total of 3931 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-20 years from 53 institutions in Japan.
Methods: Dietary fiber intake and dietary GI and GL (GI for glucose=100) were assessed by a validated, self-administered, diet history questionnaire. BMI was calculated from self-reported body weight and height.
Results: Mean values of BMI, dietary fiber intake, dietary GI and dietary GL were 21.0 kg/m(2), 6.5 g/4186 kJ, 65.1 and 82.1/4186 kJ, respectively. White rice (GI=77) was the major contributor to dietary GI and GL (45.8%). After controlling for potential dietary and nondietary confounding factors, dietary fiber intake was negatively correlated with BMI (adjusted mean=21.1 kg/m(2) in the lowest and 20.7 kg/m(2) in the highest quintiles; P for trend=0.0007). Conversely, dietary GI and GL were independently positively correlated with BMI (20.8 and 21.2 kg/m(2); P for trend=0.03, and 20.5 and 21.5 kg/m(2); P for trend=0.0005, respectively).
Conclusions: Dietary fiber intake showed an independent negative association with BMI, and dietary GI and GL showed an independent positive association with BMI among relatively lean young Japanese women.