Nickel release behavior, cytocompatibility, and superelasticity of oxidized porous single-phase NiTi

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2007 Jun 15;81(4):948-55. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.31115.


Porous NiTi shape memory alloys are one of the promising biomaterials for surgical implants because of their unique shape memory effects and porous structure with open pores. However, the complex surface morphology and larger area of porous NiTi compared to dense NiTi make it more vulnerable from the viewpoint of release of nickel, which can cause deleterious effects in the human body. It is also more difficult to modify the exposed surfaces of a porous structure using conventional surface modification technologies. In this work, oxidation in conjunction with postreaction heat treatment was used to modify the surfaces of porous single-phase NiTi prepared by capsule-free hot isostatic pressing to mitigate Ni leaching and enhance the surface properties. Differential scanning calorimetry thermal analysis, uniaxial compression tests, inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and cell cultures reveal that porous NiTi alloys oxidized at 450 degrees C for 1 h have an austenite transition temperature below 37 degrees C, excellent superelasticity, lower nickel release, and no cytotoxicity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alloys / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Calorimetry, Differential Scanning
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Copper / metabolism*
  • Elasticity
  • Mice
  • Nickel / metabolism*
  • Osteoblasts / cytology*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Porosity
  • Spectrum Analysis
  • Surface Properties
  • Temperature
  • Titanium / metabolism*
  • X-Ray Diffraction


  • Alloys
  • Copper NiTi
  • Copper
  • Nickel
  • Titanium