In studies on the Finnish Twin Cohorts, genetic and environmental determinants of common, complex diseases, and their behavioral risk factors have been investigated in Finland. In 1974, the older twins were identified, with a total of 13,888 like-sexed pairs of known zygosity. They have participated since 1975 in mail surveys, clinical examinations for subsamples, have been used to recruit families, and have been followed up for morbidity using national medical registers. Opposite twin pairs were added later. Two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins and their families, known as the FinnTwin12 and FinnTwin16 studies, have focused on determinants of health-related behaviors and disease in adolescents and young adults. This article describes current, ongoing data collection and analyses.