Trends in diet quality for coronary heart disease prevention between 1980-1982 and 2000-2002: The Minnesota Heart Survey

J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Feb;107(2):213-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2006.11.003.


Objective: Describe secular trends in overall diet quality for coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention during the past two decades (1980-1982 through 2000-2002).

Design: Dietary data were drawn from the Minnesota Heart Survey, a repeated population-based survey designed to examine trends in mortality, morbidity, and risk factors for CHD within geographically defined independent probability samples.

Subjects/setting: Adults residing in the Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, metropolitan area.

Main outcomes measures: Dietary intake was assessed by an interviewer administered 24-hour dietary recall from a subsample of survey participants. A Heart Disease Prevention Eating Index was developed to measure overall diet quality by compliance with the current American Heart Association Dietary Guidelines.

Statistical analyses: A generalized linear mixed model was used to examine trends in Heart Disease Prevention Eating Index scores and trends in each element of the index.

Results: Age-adjusted mean Heart Disease Prevention Eating Index scores increased in both sexes during the past 2 decades, particularly driven by improvements in total grain, whole grain, total fat, saturated fatty acids, trans-fatty acids, and cholesterol intake. Energy balance, sodium intake, and fish intake were observed to change unfavorably or stay at a low compliance level.

Conclusions: Of concern is that improvements in mean Heart Disease Prevention Eating Index appear to have plateaued in 1995-1997, with the mean Heart Disease Prevention Eating Index scores similar between the 1995-1997 and 2000-2002 survey periods. Public health programs for CHD prevention may benefit by applying findings from this study in designing interventions to promote further improvements in the diets of American adults.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cholesterol, Dietary / administration & dosage
  • Coronary Disease / diet therapy
  • Coronary Disease / epidemiology
  • Coronary Disease / mortality
  • Coronary Disease / prevention & control*
  • Diet Surveys
  • Diet* / standards
  • Diet* / trends
  • Diet, Fat-Restricted
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage
  • Energy Intake
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Mental Recall
  • Middle Aged
  • Minnesota / epidemiology
  • Nutrition Policy*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Primary Prevention
  • Risk Factors
  • Seafood


  • Cholesterol, Dietary
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Fiber