Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and incurs a substantial cost. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a major complication associated with CKD and has been linked with cardiovascular disease, leading to poor outcomes.
Methods: We analyzed retrospective studies for the prevalence of congestive heart failure (CHF) and acute myocardial infarction/ischemic heart disease (AMI/IHD) in pre-dialysis CKD patients to estimate the additional hospitalization cost incurred secondary to high parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Two models were developed to estimate the contribution of elevated PTH levels towards hospitalization costs in CKD patients with CHF and AMI/IHD.
Results: Cost contributions were estimated for the time intervals relative to initiation of dialysis, with the largest contributions estimated for the 3- to 1-month period prior to initiation of dialysis, $205.24 per patient-month at risk for CHF and $69.44-111.75 per patient-month at risk for AMI/IHD, without and with major complications, respectively.
Conclusion: Higher PTH levels are associated with a high prevalence of CHF and AMI/IHD. Our cost analyses show that elevated PTH levels contribute significantly toward the overall cost of care among CKD patients with CHF and AMI/IHD. The contribution of elevated PTH levels toward hospitalization cost is highest during the months directly leading up to initiation of dialysis. Further studies are required to evaluate the relationship between hyperparathyroidism and cardiovascular disease, and its impact on economic outcomes.
Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.