DNA-encoded antibody libraries: a unified platform for multiplexed cell sorting and detection of genes and proteins

J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Feb 21;129(7):1959-67. doi: 10.1021/ja065930i. Epub 2007 Jan 30.


Whether for pathological examination or for fundamental biology studies, different classes of biomaterials and biomolecules are each measured from a different region of a typically heterogeneous tissue sample, thus introducing unavoidable sources of noise that are hard to quantitate. We describe the method of DNA-encoded antibody libraries (DEAL) for spatially multiplexed detection of ssDNAs and proteins as well as for cell sorting, all on the same diagnostic platform. DEAL is based upon the coupling of ssDNA oligomers onto antibodies which are then combined with the biological sample of interest. Spotted DNA arrays, which are found to inhibit biofouling, are utilized to spatially stratify the biomolecules or cells of interest. We demonstrate the DEAL technique for (1) the rapid detection of multiple proteins within a single microfluidic channel, and, with the additional step of electroless amplification of gold-nanoparticle labeled secondary antibodies, we establish a detection limit of 10 fM for the protein IL-2, 150 times more sensitive than the analogue ELISA; (2) the multiplexed, on-chip sorting of both immortalized cell lines and primary immune cells with an efficiency that exceeds surface-confined panning approaches; and (3) the co-detection of ssDNAs, proteins, and cell populations on the same platform.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies / chemistry
  • Antibodies / genetics*
  • Antibodies / immunology
  • Cell Line
  • DNA / chemistry
  • DNA / genetics
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Gene Library*
  • Immunoconjugates / chemistry
  • Immunoconjugates / genetics
  • Immunoconjugates / immunology
  • Immunoglobulin G / chemistry
  • Immunoglobulin G / genetics
  • Mice
  • Microfluidic Analytical Techniques
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Peptide Library*
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • Antibodies
  • Immunoconjugates
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Peptide Library
  • DNA