The distribution of six neuropeptides [substance P (SP), leucine (leu5-) enkephalin (LENK), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), cholecystokinin (CCK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and somatostatin (SS)] in the dorsomedial telencephalon (hippocampal region) of the pigeon was studied by immunohistochemistry. All six peptides were found in fibers passing through the septo-hippocampal junction and along the medial wall of the hippocampal region. NPY-, SS-, and VIP-like staining of fibers was seen in the hippocampal commissure. NPY and SS had similar distributions within the hippocampal region, both being most conspicuous in cell bodies, terminals, and fibers of the medial hippocampal region. VIP-positive cells were found in an area dorsal to the SS/NPY cell region. CCK-like immunoreactivity was found in terminal baskets surrounding large cells of a v-shaped structure in the ventromedial hippocampal region. SP- and LENK-like immunoreactivity was found in neuropils in a lateral-dorsal region, the two substances showing similar distributions. This region is thought to lie lateral to the limit of the hippocampal region. Parallels with the distribution of immunoreactivity in the mammalian hippocampus are used to suggest possible equivalent subdivisions of the avian and mammalian hippocampal regions.