Resveratrol is a polyphenolic chemopreventive agent that has been shown to influence cellular redox reactions. As a systematic approach to elucidating the complex effects of resveratrol on eukaryotic cells, we studied its dose-dependent effects on the transcript levels of genes and activities of enzymes related to redox metabolism, cell cycle regulation, and apoptotic cascades in the cancer cell line A549. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx)1 mRNA levels, as well as GPx and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activities, were significantly increased after resveratrol treatment, whereas total glutathione concentrations decreased. Increased transcript levels were also detected for selenophosphate synthetase 2 and superoxide dismutase 2. However, mRNA levels of thioredoxin, TrxR, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase 1, and catalase were not altered. Among the 12 genes studied that are related to the cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis, mRNA levels of six genes, including P53, FAS, and BCL2, were upregulated, while the mRNA level of survivin was reduced. The results suggest that GPx and other selenoproteins are important targets of resveratrol. Furthermore, genes supporting cell survival and differentiation, as well as genes involved in proliferation inhibition and apoptosis, are induced by resveratrol, resulting in a delicate balance that is likely to contribute to the chemopreventive effects of resveratrol.