Intravenous epoprostenol improves exercise capacity and survival in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, chemical instability and a short half-life have caused limitations in its use. The chemically stable prostacyclin analogue treprostinil has a longer half-life, and improves hemodynamics and signs/symptoms of PAH. This study investigated the feasibility of transitioning patients with PAH from intravenous epoprostenol to intravenous treprostinil using a rapid switch protocol. Twelve PAH patients were enrolled in a 12 week prospective open label study. Patients were switched from intravenous epoprostenol to intravenous treprostinil (1:1 ng/kg/min) by a direct switch of the medication reservoir from epoprostenol to treprostinil. The dose of treprostinil was adjusted throughout the study to achieve a 2-fold increase of treprostinil compared with the baseline epoprostenol dose. Rapid transition to treprostinil was achieved without serious adverse events and, baseline clinical status was maintained over 12 weeks. The mean baseline epoprostenol dose was 28 +/- 14 ng/kg/min. At week 12, the mean treprostinil dose was 62 +/- 30 ng/kg/min. All patients reported less prostacyclin-related side effects with treprostinil and remained on treprostinil after study completion. Selected patients with PAH can be safely transitioned from intravenous epoprostenol to intravenous treprostinil using a rapid switch protocol.