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Comparative Study
, 55 (3), 787-94

Identification and Quantification of Seed Carotenoids in Selected Wheat Species

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Comparative Study

Identification and Quantification of Seed Carotenoids in Selected Wheat Species

El-Sayed M Abdel-Aal et al. J Agric Food Chem.

Abstract

Selected primitive and modern wheat species were evaluated on the basis of their carotenoid composition and effects of the genotype and environment on lutein using spectrometry and liquid chromatography. Carotenoids in the wheat extracts were identified and confirmed on the basis of their UV/vis and mass spectra compared with those of authentic standards. The protonated molecule (M + 1)+ at m/z 569 was the predominant ion for zeaxanthin compared to the fragment ion at m/z 551 for lutein. A similar carotenoid profile was obtained for the wheat species investigated, but significant differences were observed in the concentration of carotenoids. Einkorn (Triticum monococcum) exhibited the highest level of all-trans-lutein, averaging 7.41 microg/g with small amounts of all-trans-zeaxanthin, cis-lutein isomers, and beta-carotene. Durum, Kamut, and Khorasan (Triticum turgidum) had intermediate levels of lutein (5.41-5.77 microg/g), while common bread or pastry wheat (Triticum aestivum) had the lowest content (2.01-2.11 microg/g). Lutein in einkorn appeared to be influenced significantly by environmental growing conditions.

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