Skeletal resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) is well known to the phenomenon in chronic renal failure patient, but the detailed mechanism has not been elucidated. In the process of analyzing an animal model of renal failure with low bone turnover, we demonstrated decreased expression of PTH receptor (PTHR) accompanying renal dysfunction in this model. In the present study, we focused on the accumulation of uremic toxins (UTx) in blood, and examined whether indoxyl sulfate (IS), a UTx, is associated with PTH resistance. We established primary osteoblast cultures from mouse calvariae and cultured the cells in the presence of IS. The intracellular cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) production, PTHR expression, and free radical production in the primary osteoblast culture were studied. We found that the addition of IS suppressed PTH-stimulated intracellular cAMP production and decreased PTHR expression in this culture system. Free radical production in osteoblasts increased depending on the concentration of IS added. Furthermore, expression of organic anion transporter-3 (OAT-3) that is known to mediate cellular uptake of IS was identified in the primary osteoblast culture. These results suggest that IS taken up by osteoblasts via OAT-3 present in these cells augments oxidative stress to impair osteoblast function and downregulate PTHR expression. These finding strongly suggest that IS accumulated in blood due to renal dysfunction is at least one of the factors that induce skeletal resistance to PTH.