DNA sequencing analysis was used to investigate genetic alterations in the rpoB, katG, and inhA regulatory region and embB in 66 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates recovered from Central China. Of the 36 multidrug-resistant isolates, 33 (92%) had mutations in the amplified region of rpoB. The most frequent mutation (58%, 19/36) was S531L (TCG-->TTG). At least one mutation was found in the katG and inhA regulatory region in 83% (30/36) of the multidrug-resistant isolates, and mutations at katG codon 315 were identified in 78% (28/36). Alterations at embB306 may not confer resistance to EMB, and embB306 mutants were more frequently accompanied by rpoB mutations (100%, 16/16) than by katG 315 mutations (75%, 12/16). Our results show that geographic variation in the molecular genetic mechanism is responsible for drug resistance in multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis. This observation will facilitate the development of a rapid molecular drug resistance screening approach for drug-resistant M. tuberculosis.