The Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides information on the new developments in vaccines that have taken place in 2006 and recommends certain modifications to the Immunization Schedule for 2007. To ensure early protection, the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine booster dose should be administered when children start school (3-4 years). Based on existing scientific evidence, the importance of universal heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccination, as occurs in most similar European countries and in the autonomous community of Madrid in Spain, is confirmed. The safety and efficacy of rotavirus and human papilloma virus vaccines, as well as their use in our environment, is discussed and the role of pediatricians in their implementation is stressed. The recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents starting vaccination late is also discussed.