Introduction: Inverted papilloma (Schneiderian papilloma) is a primarily benign lesion that occurs in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Clinical problems include a tendency towards local destruction, recurrence and malignant transformation into squamous cell carcinoma. Hence, complete surgical removal is the therapy of choice and a meticulous follow-up is mandatory.
Study design: This is a review including a short introduction to the different histological types of nasal papilloma, their pathogenesis and the clinical and histopathological diagnosis. Staging systems, therapeutic approaches, and surgical concepts are discussed.
Result: The detection and definition of factors that allow a prognosis of recurrence or malignant transformation of inverted papilloma is an active field of research. The results of studies dealing with the definition of prognostic factors, that investigated immunohistochemical methods, virus detection, molecular genetics, and histomorphological studies are discussed including our own results on the prognostic value of histology. A concept for the diagnosis, management, therapy and follow-up of inverted papilloma is proposed.