Alopecia areata (AA) is a nonscarring, autoimmune, inflammatory, hair loss on the scalp, and/or body. Etiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The most common site affected is the scalp. Histopathology is characterized by an increased number of the catagen and telogen follicles, the presence of inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate in the peribulbar region ("swarm of bees"). Corticosteroids are the most popular drugs for the treatment of this disease. Etiologic and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as other current treatments available will be discussed in this article.