Ontogeny of rdh9 (Crad3) expression: ablation causes changes in retinoid and steroid metabolizing enzymes, but RXR and androgen signaling seem normal

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Apr;1770(4):694-705. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2006.12.008. Epub 2006 Dec 24.


Crad3 (cis-retinol/androgen dehydrogenase 3), a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase, converts 9-cis-retinol into 9-cis-retinal and 3alpha-androstanediol into dihydrotestosterone. Crad3 may serve in biosynthesis of 9-cis-retinoic acid, a putative RXR ligand, and/or regeneration of potent androgens. RT-PCR showed that expression of the gene that encodes Crad3, rdh9, begins in liver by e11.5, and in kidney, testis, brain and intestine during e15.5-e16.5. In situ hybridization showed rdh9 expression in embryonic liver, ganglia, small intestine, lung, skin and vertebral cartilage. In adult, in situ hybridization revealed rdh9 expression intensely in hepatocytes, weakly in kidney glomerulus, and intensely in collecting tubules. In intestine, undifferentiated epithelia had greater expression than differentiated epithelia at the distal villus end. Testes expressed rdh9 in spermatogonia, and weakly in Leydig cells. Adult brain expressed rdh9 in the dentate gyrus and CA regions of the hippocampus, the cerebellum Purkinje cells, and the glomerular and mitral cell layers of the olfactory bulb. Rdh9-null mice, backcrossed against C57BL/6J mice, were born in Mendelian frequency, were healthy and fertile, and had normal tissue retinoid and serum dihydrotestosterone levels. Expression of rdh1, a gene that encodes an efficient retinol dehydrogenase, decreased 3- to 8-fold in rdh9-null mice, depending on dietary vitamin A. Microarray analysis and quantitative PCR revealed 2- to 4-fold increases in mRNA of enzymes that catalyze xenobiotic and steroid metabolism, including Cyp2, Cyp3, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, and 17beta-hydroxsteroid dehydrogenases types 4 and 5. These data indicate widespread Crad3 function(s) in steroid and/or retinoid metabolism starting mid embryogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases / deficiency
  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases / genetics
  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases / metabolism*
  • Androgens / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism
  • Embryo, Mammalian / enzymology
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*
  • Growth and Development / genetics
  • Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / metabolism
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Isoenzymes
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Retinoid X Receptors / metabolism
  • Retinoids / metabolism*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Steroids / metabolism*
  • Time Factors


  • Androgens
  • Isoenzymes
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Retinoid X Receptors
  • Retinoids
  • Steroids
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases
  • Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
  • Rdh1 protein, mouse
  • cis-retinol - androgen dehydrogenase