To study the late consequences of primary bone cancer, we interviewed 82 osteosarcoma and 29 Ewing's sarcoma survivors regarding their health, fertility and offspring, employment, annual income, and activities of daily living. All subjects had been diagnosed before age 20 (mean age, 14.6 years), had survived at least 5 years from diagnosis, and were at least 21 years of age. On average, they were 32.5 years of age at interview. As controls, 151 siblings were interviewed. During the follow-up period, eight survivors had died, and eight survivors had been diagnosed with a second malignancy (7.2%; P = .002). No other health condition distinguished survivors from controls. Although the survivors were more likely than controls to have some difficulty climbing stairs and to have had employment disability, employment status and annual income at follow-up were similar. Deficits in marriage and fertility were not significant. Adult survivors of primary bone tumors diagnosed during childhood or adolescence are at high risk for second malignancies and premature death, making continued medical follow-up of utmost importance. Despite the physical impairment following limb amputation for many, the majority of outcomes we measured did not differ from controls, suggesting few adverse psychosocial outcomes in this group of cancer survivors.