Background: The metabolic syndrome is a common risk factor for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Western populations. We examined the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and risk of CKD in Chinese adults.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 15 160 Chinese adults aged 35-74 years. The metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of the following risk factors: elevated blood pressure, low high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, high triglycerides, elevated plasma glucose and abdominal obesity. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and elevated serum creatinine was defined as >or=1.14 mg/dl in men and >or=0.97 mg/dl in women (>or=95th percentile of serum creatinine in Chinese men and women aged 35-44 years without hypertension or diabetes, respectively).
Results: The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence interval (CI)] of CKD and elevated serum creatinine in participants with compared to those without the metabolic syndrome were 1.64 (1.16, 2.32) and 1.36 (1.07, 1.73), respectively. Compared to participants without any components of the metabolic syndrome, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of CKD were 1.51 (1.02, 2.23), 1.50 (0.97, 2.32), 2.13 (1.30, 3.50) and 2.72 (1.50, 4.93) for those with 1, 2, 3, and 4 or 5 components, respectively. The corresponding multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of elevated serum creatinine were 1.11 (0.88, 1.40), 1.39 (1.07, 2.04), 1.47 (1.06, 2.04) and 2.00 (1.32, 3.03), respectively.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that the metabolic syndrome might be an important risk factor for CKD in Chinese adults.