Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) was performed in 19 patients referred for clinical evaluation of soft-tissue masses. These patients had 20 different lesions and had been evaluated previously with computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The diagnoses were subsequently confirmed with open biopsy or excision (19 lesions) or by clinical and radiographic follow-up (one lesion). Semiquantitative assessment of FDG accumulation (differential uptake ratio) within the suspected tumor helped correctly separate the 10 malignant tumors from the 10 benign lesions. In contrast, a simple ratio of FDG uptake within the suspected tumor to that within comparable normal soft tissue was less successful in helping make this distinction, with overlap in 12 of the 20 cases. Careful comparison with findings from other available imaging studies is essential for accurate interpretation of PET studies of soft-tissue masses, but in many cases, PET may be a useful adjunct in the preoperative evaluation of suspected soft-tissue tumors, yielding valuable information that is not provided with CT or MR imaging.