In this article, we describe a novel autosomal recessive ichthyosis with hypotrichosis syndrome, characterized by congenital ichthyosis associated with abnormal hair. Using homozygosity mapping, we mapped the disease locus to 11q24.3-q25. We screened the ST14 gene, which encodes matriptase, since transplantation of skin from matriptase(-/-)-knockout mice onto adult athymic nude mice has been shown elsewhere to result in an ichthyosislike phenotype associated with almost complete absence of erupted pelage hairs. Mutation analysis revealed a missense mutation, G827R, in the highly conserved peptidase S1-S6 domain. Marked skin hyperkeratosis due to impaired degradation of the stratum corneum corneodesmosomes was observed in the affected individuals, which suggests that matriptase plays a significant role in epidermal desquamation.