Background: It has been shown that smoking habits represent an increased risk for impaired bone healing and implant failure. This study aimed to evaluate the implant survival rates among non-smokers (NS) and different kinds of smokers (S).
Methods: A retrospective analysis was made over a 5-year period of the clinical and radiographic findings corresponding to 66 consecutive patients who had received a total of 165 dental implants. Patients were divided into two groups: S, 40 patients (95 implants; 58% of the sample); and NS, 26 patients (70 implants; 42% of the sample). Also, S and NS were classified into four different categories according to daily tobacco use: NS, 26 patients and 70 implants; light smokers (LS), 23 patients and 44 implants; moderate smokers (MS), 11 patients and 25 implants; and heavy smokers (HS), six patients and 26 implants.
Results: Sixteen implants (9.7%) failed and had to be removed. Group S showed 15 failures and a success rate of 84.2%. Group NS had only one failure, giving a success rate of 98.6%. The risk of implant failure was approximately 31% in those who smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day. HS showed statistical differences from NS or LS. However, they did not show any differences from MS.
Conclusions: Within the limits of the present study, the use of tobacco involves a 15.8% risk of implant failure, with a 13.1 odds ratio. LS or MS tobacco use involves a 10.1% relative risk of implant loss, whereas the consumption of >20 cigarettes per day increases this risk to 30.8%.