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. 2007 Jul;44(1):291-307.
doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.12.014. Epub 2006 Dec 27.

Systematics, Biogeography, and Evolution of the Neotropical Peacock Basses Cichla (Perciformes: Cichlidae)

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Systematics, Biogeography, and Evolution of the Neotropical Peacock Basses Cichla (Perciformes: Cichlidae)

Stuart C Willis et al. Mol Phylogenet Evol. .

Abstract

To investigate forces influencing diversification in Neotropical fishes, the phylogenetic relationships among species and populations of the cichlid genus Cichla were examined. Mitochondrial DNA was sequenced for 454 individuals of the 5 nominal Cichla species and several putative undescribed species. Phylogenetic analyses support the distinction of two major clades of Cichla. Clade A includes C. temensis and two undescribed species from the lower Amazonas and Xingu Rivers. Clade B includes C. orinocensis, C. monoculus, C. ocellaris. C, intermedia, and an undescribed species from the upper Madeira River. Species boundaries were relatively well-circumscribed for clade B, while incomplete lineage sorting was inferred for clade A. Three probable instances of introgression were observed, including a regional population of C. orinocensis from the Negro River that shows a history of introgression. Biogeographic patterns from Cichla are partially congruent with those seen in several other Neotropical fish clades, and the diversification of Cichla species is inferred to result from both vicariance and sympatric divergence.

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