Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) occurs worldwide. The most common mutations in the CYP21A2 gene in 716 unrelated patients were analyzed and the mutations were grouped by ethnicity, as defined through self-declaration corroborated by review of pedigrees extending to two or three generations. Prevalent allelic mutations and genotypes were found to vary significantly among ethnic groups, and the predominance of the prevalent mutations and genotypes in several of these populations was significant. There are ethnic-specific mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. A large deletion is prevalent in the Anglo-Saxons; a V281L (1685 G to T) mutation is prevalent in Ashkenazi Jews; an R356W (2109 G to A) mutation is prevalent in the Croatians; an IVS2 AS -13 (A/C to G) mutation is prevalent in the Iranians and Yupik-speaking Eskimos of Western Alaska; and a Q318X (1994 C to T) mutation is prevalent in East Indians. Genotype/phenotype non-correlation was seen when at least one IVS2 AS -13 (A/C to G) mutation in the CYP21A2 gene was present.