Endometrial apoptosis induced by a 900-MHz mobile phone: preventive effects of vitamins E and C

Adv Ther. 2006 Nov-Dec;23(6):957-73. doi: 10.1007/BF02850217.


Numerous reports have described the effects induced by an electromagnetic field (EMF) in various cellular systems. The purposes of this study were to examine oxidative stress that promotes production of reactive oxygen species induced by a 900-megahertz (MHz) mobile phone and the possible ameliorating effects of vitamins E and C on endometrial tissue against EMF-induced endometrial impairment and apoptosis in rats. Animals were randomly grouped as follows: (1) sham-operated control group (n=8), (2) 900 MHz EMF-exposed group (n=8; 30 min/d for 30 d), and (3) 900 MHz EMF-exposed group, treated with vitamins E and C (n=8; 50 mg/kg intramuscularly and 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally before daily EMF exposure). Malondialdehyde (an index of lipid peroxidation) was used as a marker of oxidative stress-induced endometrial impairment; Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-8 were assessed immunohistochemically. In this study, increased malondialdehyde levels in endometrial tissue and apoptosis illustrated the role of the oxidative mechanism induced by exposure to a 900-MHz mobile phone-like device and vitamins E and C; via free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, oxidative tissue injury and apoptosis were ameliorated in rat endometrium. In conclusion, exposure to 900-MHz radiation emitted by mobile phones may cause endometrial apoptosis and oxidative stress, but treatment with vitamins E and C can diminish these changes and may have a beneficial effect in preventing endometrial changes in rats.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis*
  • Ascorbic Acid / therapeutic use*
  • Caspase 3 / metabolism
  • Caspase 8 / metabolism
  • Cell Phone*
  • Electromagnetic Fields / adverse effects*
  • Endometrium / metabolism*
  • Endometrium / pathology
  • Estrous Cycle
  • Female
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Random Allocation
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Uterine Diseases / metabolism
  • Uterine Diseases / pathology
  • Uterine Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Vitamin E / therapeutic use*


  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Vitamin E
  • Caspase 3
  • Caspase 8
  • Ascorbic Acid