Purpose: To investigate the effects of combined tenotomy and recession procedures on both acquired downbeat nystagmus and horizontal infantile nystagmus.
Methods: Patient 1 had downbeat nystagmus with a chin-down (upgaze) position, oscillopsia, strabismus, and diplopia. Asymmetric superior rectus recessions and inferior rectus tenotomies reduced right hypertropia and rotated both eyes downward. Patient 2 had horizontal infantile nystagmus, a 20 degrees left-eye exotropia, and alternating (abducting-eye) fixation. Lateral rectus recessions and medial rectus tenotomies were performed. Horizontal and vertical eye movements were recorded pre- and postsurgically using high-speed digital video. The eXpanded Nystagmus Acuity Function (NAFX) and nystagmus amplitudes and frequencies were measured.
Results: Patient 1: The NAFX peak moved from 10 degrees up to primary position where NAFX values improved 17% and visual acuity increased 25%. Vertical NAFX increased across the -10 degrees to +5 degrees vertical range. Primary-position right hypertropia decreased approximately 50%; foveation time per cycle increased 102%; vertical amplitude, oscillopsia, and diplopia were reduced, and frequency was unchanged. Patient 2: Two lateral, narrow high-NAFX regions (due to alternating fixation) became one broad region with a 43% increase in primary position (acuity increased approximately 92.3%). Diplopia amplitude decreased; convergence and gaze holding were improved. Primary-position right exotropia was reduced; foveation time per cycle increased 257%; horizontal-component amplitude decreased 45.7%, and frequency remained unchanged.
Conclusions: Combining tenotomy with nystagmus or strabismus recession procedures increased NAFX and visual acuities and reduced diplopia and oscillopsia in downbeat nystagmus and infantile nystagmus.